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New Biographies

Minor Corrections

Biography of the Day


d. 28 Nov. 1867 at Fredericton


Responsible Government

Sir John A. Macdonald

From the Red River Settlement to Manitoba (1812–70)

Sir Wilfrid Laurier

Sir George-Étienne Cartier


The Fenians

Women in the DCB/DBC

The Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences of 1864

Introductory Essays of the DCB/DBC

The Acadians

For Educators

The War of 1812 

Canada’s Wartime Prime Ministers

The First World War

Resistance in the Maritimes

In the Maritime colonies, opposition to confederation was based largely on the fear that it would undercut their independence and undermine their economies [see Opposition to Confederation]. Prince Edward Island refused to join until 1873; in Newfoundland’s case it was 1949. In New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, there was considerable hostility to what Joseph HOWE called the “Botheration” scheme. Howe’s biographer sums up his concerns:

“His prophecy that it would take ‘the wisdom of Solomon and the energy and strategy of Frederick the Great’ to weld the disparate people of the proposed union into ‘a new nationality’ was not too far off the mark.”


For more information on opposition to confederation in the Maritime colonies, see the following biographies.

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